Lawyers are the person who, being a Law graduate and duly registered in the professional association, provides legal services to his clients, through advice and/or assistance in both judicial and extrajudicial proceedings.
Within the legal sector, we can find general lawyers, as well as specialists in specific branches of law. In this article, we are going to review the most common types of lawyers to get to know them and to know which one we should turn to if necessary.
The most common typologies of lawyers
1.Labor Lawyers: They are specialized in Labor Law and Social Security. They intervene in conflicts between workers and companies and public administrations. The most common matters in which they intervene are dismissals, wage claims, mobbing claims, disabilities, work accidents, vacation disputes, substantial modification of working conditions, etc.
We can find labor lawyers whose clients are only workers, others who only run companies and there are also those who have both workers and companies. In case of intervening in legal proceedings, these are processed mainly in the Social Courts, and in the second instance in the Superior Courts of Justice.
2. Criminal lawyers: As their name indicates, they are dedicated to Criminal Law, that is, to matters in which there has been some type of criminal activity. Its function is to assist and defend the interests of its clients in statements, during the investigation, and in the oral trial phase. In case of having the injured party as a client, their function will be to present the complaint or complaint and, where appropriate, appear as an accusation.
And, in the event of taking the alleged offender, your task is to defend your client from the facts of which he is accused in order to be acquitted or, depending on the case, reach an agreement with the prosecutor to limit the possible conviction. In the case of judicial proceedings, mainly, they intervene in the Investigative Courts, in the Criminal Courts, and in the Provincial Court. And, in certain cases,
3. Civil Lawyers: They are dedicated to matters related to Civil Law. Therefore, they defend the interests of individuals against other individuals, who can be natural or legal persons (companies, entities, etc.). Within this scope, there are very varied cases, from claiming financial debts to extra-contractual or contractual civil liability, through divorces, inheritances, or incapacities.
Their judicial action is carried out mainly in the Courts of First Instance and in the Provincial Court. Likewise, within Civil Law, today we can find lawyers who are specialists in specific matters such as Real Estate Law, in cases of foreclosure, evictions, floor clauses, etc.
4. Family Lawyers: Although Family Law is, rather, a sub-branch within Civil Law, we can consider it as a specialty since there are many lawyers specialized in Family Law. The most common issues in which they intervene are separations and divorces, and derivatives of these such as the visitation regime of the children, provisional measures, etc.
5. Mercantilist lawyers: They are those who are dedicated to Commercial Law, that is, the one that has to do with the business world. In recent years, they have been very much in vogue due to the large increase in bankruptcy proceedings.
However, their role is not limited to the judicial field but they also deal with merger processes between companies, drafting of commercial contracts, negotiation of agreements, intervention in shareholders’ meetings, etc. As for jurisdiction, the Commercial Courts are competent and, depending on the situation, also the Courts of First Instance.
6. Administrative Lawyers: Their scope of action is that in which at least one public administration intervenes. They can be conflicts between different administrations or between them and an individual. It intervenes in the administrative process by writing allegations, appeals, or replacement and, if necessary, appeals before the contentious-administrative jurisdiction.
They intervene in cases such as appealing administrative sanctions, urban planning files, or claims for damages due to poor performance of public service.
7. Tax lawyers: They are specialized in financial and tax law, that is, everything that has to do with taxes, taxes, fees, etc. His intervention ranges from advising to carrying out negotiations with the Tax Agency and, if necessary, in judicial proceedings in the contentious-administrative jurisdiction.
As can be seen, there are different types of lawyers according to the different specialties within the Law. Whenever the intervention of a lawyer is necessary, it is best to be a specialist in the matter in question.